APA Style

American Psychological Association

APA – Sample Bibliographic References

All references should be double-spaced and have a hanging indent.

The following sample citations are based on:

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (2009). Washington, DC:

American Psychological Association.

APA style guide to electronic references. (2007). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/

Electronic materials including e-journal articles and abstracts, e-books and websites.

Use “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from” when the URL leads to information on how to obtain cited material rather than the material itself.

Reference to an electronic book

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.) Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from http://www.onlineoriginals.com


Reference to a book chapter

Mitchell, H.W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W.A. White & S.E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern

modern of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287- 330). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database.

Reference to an e-journal article with DOI assigned

Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-488. doi:10.1037/0002 9432.76.4.482

Reference to an e-journal article with no DOI assigned

Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived

early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from


Reference to an abstract as original source

Morrissey, J.P. (2004). Medicaid benefits and recidivism of mentally ill persons released from jail (NCJ No.

214169) [Abstract]. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service abstracts database.

Reference to an online encyclopedia

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved

January 28, 2007, from http://plato.stanford.edu

Reference to an online dictionary

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved October 20, 2005, from


Reference to a newspaper article

Hilts, P.J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times.

Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Reference to a wiki

Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from The Psychology Wiki:


Reference to a podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2006, October 13). Understanding autism [Show 54]. Shrink Rap Radio.

Podcast retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Article on Web Site, no date

Dvoretsky, D.P. (n.d.). History: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Retrieved January 27, 2007, from http://www.infran.ru/history_eng.htm

Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group

Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Msg 1].

Message posted to news://sci.pyschology.consciousness,

archived at http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness/

Print materials including journal articles and books.

Reference to a book

Beck, C.A., & Sales, B.D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths and future prospects.

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reference to a book, no author or editor

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster.

Reference to an article or chapter in an edited book

Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fully logical model of perception. In H.L. Pick, Jr.,

P. van den Broek, & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp.51-84).

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reference to an article in a journal paginated by individual issue

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 45(2), 10-36.

Reference to an article in a periodical with continuous pagination

Herman, L.M., Kuczaj, S.A., III, & Holder, M.D. (1993). Responses to anomalous gestural sequences

by a language-trained dolphin: Evidence for processing of semantic relationships and syntactic

information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(2), 184-194.

Reference to a daily newspaper article, no author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15).

The Washington Post, p. A12.

Reference to a technical or research report

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication

No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

APA Style Blog

APA FlowchartThe APA Style Blog offers a lot of tips and tricks about the APA 6th edition, including the basics of DOIs and a DOI and URL Flowchart to tell users how to cite DOIs when they are available and how to cite articles that do not have DOIs.

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