Modern Language Association
Entitle the list of citations “Works cited” (without the quotation marks). The sample citations reflect the rules found in the Modern Language Association’s most current handbook:
Gilbaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York:
Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.
All references should be double-spaced; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line(s) one-half inch. Examples are single-spaced to save space. Each sample citation is preceded by the MLA reference number. NOTE: alphabetize works cited by title, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Please see the MLA Handbook (found in the Ready Reference LB2369.G53 2009) for in-text citation guidelines.
A book by a single author
Author. Book Title Place: Publisher, Date. Medium of Publication.
Jones, Barry. Sleepers, Wake!: Technology and the Future of Work. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. Print.
Note: The format of the author’s name is last name, first name. However, this is only true for the first author of a work (see 5.6.4 below). An author’s middle initial may also be included.
Two or more books by the same author
To cite two or more books by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title.
Walters, Glenn D. The Criminal Lifestyle: Patterns of Serious Criminal Conduct. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, 1990. Print.
—. Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994. Print.
A book by two or more authors
Cole, George F. and Christopher E. Smith. Criminal Justice in America. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Pub. Co.,1996. Print.
Note: name of only the first author is reversed. If there are more than three authors, you may name only the first and add et al. (“and others”), or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Cashin, James A., et al. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Intermediate Accounting.
2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. Print.
A work (essay, short story, poem) in an anthology
Author. “Title.” (Of part of book being cited). Name of translator of the short work. Title of Anthology. Ed. Name of editor of book being cited. Name of translator(s) of entire book. Place: publisher, date. Pages numbers of cited place. Medium of publication.
Goisbeault, Nicole. “African Myths.” Companion to Literary Myths, Heroes and Archetypes. Ed. Pierre
Brunel. Trans. Wendy Allatson, Judith Hayward, Trista Selous. New York: Routledge, 1992. 24-29. Print.
An article in a reference book
Entry author. “Entry Title.” Book Title. Book author/editor. Place: Publisher, Date. Medium of publication.
Note: When citing familiar reference books, do not give full publication information. List only the edition and the year of publication.
Fabri, Marcel Y. “Population.” Collier’s Encyclopedia. 1994 ed. Print.
“Rodchenko Alexander.” A Biographical Dictionary of Artists. Ed. Lawrence Gowing. New York: Facts on
File, 1995. Print.
An article in a scholarly journal that pages each issue separately
Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume.issue (year): page numbers. Medium of publication.
Krolik, Richard. “Inventing Instant TV Traditions: George Stevens, Jr., Honoring Just About Everybody
in Sight.” Television Quarterly 27.2 (1994): 69-75. Print.
An article in a newspaper
Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (omit initial articles) day month year, edition: page number. Medium of publication.
Norris, Floyd. “Are 20 Years of Market Joy About to End?” New York Times 27 Nov. 1994, late ed.:
An article in a magazine
Author. “Article Title.” Magazine Title day month year: page numbers. Medium of publication.
Ezzell, Carol. “The Business of the Human Genome.” Scientific American July 2000: 48-49. Print.
Rosen, Craig. “Columbia, Geffen Offer Joy for Aerosmith Fans.” Billboard 8 Oct. 1994: 8-9. Print.
An anonymous article
(when alphabetizing, omit initial articles in title)
“Acquisition Completed.” New York Times 1 Dec. 1994, nat’l. ed.: C3. Print.
A film or video recording
Start with title, director (dir.), or performer (perf.), whichever you want to emphasize in the entry. Include film studio or distributor, the year of release, and the medium of publication. You may add additional information that seems pertinent.
Clueless. Dir. Amy Herckerling. Paramount, 1995. Film.
Herckerling, Amy, dir. Clueless. Paramount, 1995. Film.
Sunshine. Dir. Istvan Szabo. Screenplay by Israel Horowitz and Istvan Szabo. Paramount, 2000. DVD.
Ullman, Liv, perf. Cries and Whispers. Dir. Ingmar Bergman. Perf. Harriet Andersson, Kari Sylwan,
and Ingrid Thulin. Warner, 1981. Videocassette.
Name of person interviewed. If part of a publication or program, “Title of Interview.” or if published independently, Title of Interview. Or if interview is untitled, use label Interview (no italics, quotes, or underline) and add interviewer’s name, if pertinent. Appropriate bibliographic information. Medium.
Nader, Ralph. Interview with Ray Suarez. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR, Boston. 16 Apr.
Note: To cite an interview that you conducted, follow the format of this examples:
Dodd, Wayne. Personal interview. 8 August 1990.
Electronic Resources Including Internet
World Wide Web Site Document – A Professional or Personal Site
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Medium of publication. Date of access.
Note: If date or publisher are not known, use n.d. and n.p., respectively.
Gottschalk, Gunther. The Herman Hesse Page. The University of California at Santa Barbara. Web. 2 Feb. 1999.
Briedenbaugh, Andrew. Andrew’s Online Reference. n.p. Web. 14 March 2000.
Article in an Online Periodical
Note: Follow these rules if you accessed a periodical for free on the WWW.
Example #1: Online only journal – no page numbers
Author. “Title of work.” Name of Periodical volume.issue (year of publication): n. pag. Medium of publication. Date of access.
Kane, Sara. “AEA Sessions Discuss Emerging Markets, the Euro, and Transition Economics.”
IMF Survey. 29.2 (2000): n. pag. Web. 7 July 2000.
Example #2: Online journal that also appears in print
Author. “Title of work.” Name of Periodical volume.issue (year of publication): #: page range. Medium of publication used. Date of access.
Tully, R. Brent, et al. “Global Extinction in Spiral Galaxies.” Astronomical Journal 115.6 (1998): 42-49.
Web. 27 June 1998.
Materials Accessed from an Electronic Database
Note: Follow these instructions if you utilized a commercial database in a library or remotely accessed a database via the library.
Author. Article title. Printed source title Volume.issue (year) or Date of print publication: print page numbers. Title of Electronic Database. Date of access.
Lim, Shirley Geok-Lin. “Feminist and Ethnic Literary Theories in Asian American Literature.”
Feminist Studies 19.3 (1993): 571-595. Gender Watch. 7 July 2000.
For additional information on MLA Style, see guidelines on MLA documentation style published by the Modern Language Association online.