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Archive for February, 2015

 

Citation Styles: Why Are They Different?

Wednesday, February 25th, 2015 | Posted in USF Writing Studio Blog: Tips, News, and Updates by dmfarrar | No Comments »

apa-and-mlaby Ashley Annis, an MFA student at USF in Creative Writing and a Writing Studio consultant

Ever start writing a paper and see that the teacher wants it in APA as opposed to MLA, or perhaps they prefer Chicago over Turabian. What’s the difference? Most students will plug information into citation generators and call it a day, but knowing what the reasoning behind citation conventions can go a long way in making sure you have a properly formatted paper.

For the most part, here in the Writing Studio, papers will conform to APA and MLA guidelines. So, here’s a quick overview of the differences between the two and a brief explanation of why they’re different, so maybe next time, you’ll remember why you’re using direct quotes on your English Literature paper and paraphrasing ideas from a peer-reviewed study in Biology.

APA

APA, created by the American Psychological Association, is a citation style commonly used by the social science fields—economics, psychology, sociology and others, though many nursing and other hard science courses at USF also conform to this citation style. This style focuses on borrowed credibility, meaning the writer of an APA paper should have a wide variety of sources and a relatively large amount of cited material.

The reason APA focuses on a large body of cited material is a rhetorical decision based on the purpose of these types of papers. When discussing scientific research, the more information you have to support your claim, the better (within reason, of course). By borrowing the credibility of Jones et. al, you as a writer are able to show your reader evidence of your claim by showing who has thought of this idea before.

Because APA focuses on ideas and concepts, the citation style is built to be quick and let the reader know as much information upfront as possible. The writer will focus on paraphrasing their sources more so than quoting them directly. For example:

Dr. Jones (2012), professor of Biology at Fake University, asserts that unicorns indeed did exist at one point in history.

In this brief portion, the writer borrows credibility from Dr. Jones without quoting her directly, but the reader still knows 1) who wrote the source 2) when it was published and 3) what the source’s credentials are.

MLA

MLA is a citation style made by the Modern Language Association, usually associated with the humanities and liberal arts. The focus of these disciplines is narrower, making arguments regarding precise use of language or other abstract concepts, such as human behavior or visual art. As opposed to APA, where broad, new ideas are most relevant, and the agreement of multiple sources is ideal, the scope of ideas in most MLA papers is narrower than that of an APA paper, the writer will focus on using a small number of specific quotes, which is why the in-text citation focuses on 1) who wrote the source, and 2) where to find the quote.

For example:

Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263).

We can see here that the writer’s argument focuses more on the source’s word choice than the idea, so therefore the quote itself is important. The reader knows where to find the quote immediately, thanks to the citation style.

Still Unsure?

Here’s a handy chart explaining the differences between APA and MLA.

MLA APA
Humanities, Art, Literature, English Psychology, Hard Sciences, Sociology
Relies heavily on quotation Discourages heavy quotation, encourages paraphrasing
Purpose of paper is to analyze and make arguments based upon existing texts Purpose is to search for and reveal new concepts or debunk existing ones
Favors single authors Encourages large collaborations

Feel free to come speak to a Writing Studio consultant when it comes to a citation style you’re unfamiliar with or have never used before (or even ones that you have used before but you just want more clarity). We’d be more than happy to help answer any further questions you have. But isn’t it nice to know that citation styles do have a rhyme and reason?

 

Writing Prompt for the Hungry

Tuesday, February 3rd, 2015 | Posted in USF Writing Studio Blog: Tips, News, and Updates by dmfarrar | No Comments »

WritingPromptfortheHungryby Brittany Cagle, an MFA student at USF in Creative Writing and a Writing Studio consultant

Objective:
We avoid abstractions, or ideas that cannot be experienced through your senses, because they fail to call up an image in our audience’s mind. This makes our writing feel flat. In this exercise you will use concrete details, or language that appeals to the reader’s five senses (sight, smell, hearing, touch, or taste), to learn how to make an abstract idea, such as hunger, tangible.

Introduction:
Before we can begin to understand hunger, we must define it. Real hunger is a biological drive to replenish missing key nutrients. Cravings, often mistaken for hunger, are psychological urges to eat for reasons other than nourishment. Real hunger cannot wait for a few hours. It demands to be fed.

Often hunger is associated with trying times and speaks to more than just the need for sustenance. Some writers have described this sensation as something reaching far into their bones. Others have labeled it as a black hole within the stomach—an overwhelming feeling that completely distracts one from anything other than finding food to fill in that gap.

Examples:
In the 1996 heartbreaking memoir, Angela’s Ashes, Frank McCourt suffers continually from hunger as he grows up in Limerick, a city on the west coast of Ireland. In the sixth chapter, McCourt describes his memory from geometry class while watching his teacher peel an apple. He writes,

It is torture to watch Mr. O’Neill peel the apple every day, to see the length of it, red or green, and if you’re up near him to catch the freshness of it in your nose. If you’re the good boy for that day and you answer the questions he gives it to you and lets you eat it there at your desk so that you can eat it in peace with no one to bother you the way they would if you took it into the yard. Then they’d torment you, Gimme a piece, gimme a piece, and you’d be lucky to have an inch left for yourself. (154)

Similarly, the 1845 memoir, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, describes Fredrick Douglass’s suffering of hunger. This famous orator and former slave tells his readers he is:

…perfectly helpless both as to the means of defence and means of escape, —in the midst of plenty, yet suffering the terrible gnawings of hunger, —in the midst of houses, yet having no home, —among fellow-men, yet feeling as if in the midst of wild beasts, whose greediness to swallow up the trembling and half-famished fugitive is only equalled by that with which the monsters of the deep swallow up the helpless fish upon which they subsist, —I say… (111)

Through a mental depiction, Douglass describes his own hunger as a “terrible gnawing” and a feeling of “trembling.” He is a helpless fish and a “half-famished fugitive,” vulnerable in the midst of wild beasts.

Exercise:
Using the sample excerpts as a model, write a 1 page first-person description of a time when you felt hungry. Perhaps this was a time when you had forgotten to eat entirely or remained stuck in traffic between class and dinner. Perhaps hunger might have been something more—a reality of not knowing when you would consume your next meal. Use language that appeals to the senses of your reader. Describe not only the physical, but also the mental crippling effects of hunger. You may ask yourself, how does one begin to describe this sensation? Use the following questions to guide you in your writing.

Can you describe your hunger?

  • Through the traditional five senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, or touch)?
  • Is it a rumbling? A deafening roar? Complete silence?
  • Does your stomach feel like it’s caving in? Pressing up against your back?
  • Is there a sense that something is missing? That something didn’t quite hit the spot?
  • Does it feel hot? Cold?
  • Does it taste like your favorite meal?
  • Is it a physical sensation (shaking, stirring, stillness)?
  • Through color?
  • Through thoughts? (Does it make you angry? Irritated? Want to whine?)
 
 
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